Macedonians were Greeks
Historical truth on the ancient Macedonians
One of the most famous Macedonian participants in the Olympics was king Alexander I. He was not the only participant however, as we shall see later on.
Let’s elaborate on Herodotus’ quote above first though. We see that Herodotus himself knows (and later will prove – although this text has not survived) that ancient Macedonians were Greeks. He furthermore states that the Olympic judges (Hellenodicae) “determined that it is so” (i.e. that the ancient Macedonians were Greeks).
Slavic Macedonist propaganda will rely and insist on the part that Alexander’s Greek ethnicity was disputed by the other athletes. However, they conveniently ignore that these athletes were the competition and would employ any means necessary to disqualify a competitor. Besides, Macedonians at the time were a relatively isolated and backward Greek state, so some Greeks may not have seen them favourably, especially since Macedonia had become a vassal state of Persia.
Therefore, it is quite obvious that Herodotus was speaking the truth: ancient Macedonians were Greek.
In addition to king Alexander I, more athletes participated in pan-Hellenic games. One must note, however, that the names of athletes before Alexander I has not survived. It is more likely that due to the following two main factors:
1) Macedonia’s great distance from Olympia and its vicinity to enemy states, who would not observe the Greek ekecheiria (Olympic Truce), forced the Macedonians to restrain themselves from participating since they needed their soldiers alert and ready at all times (that is, of course, until they were able to subdue their enemies).
2) In the first 200 years of the games’ existence, they only had regional religious importance. Only Greeks in proximity to the mountain competed in these early games. This is evidenced by the dominance of Peloponnesian athletes in the victors’ rolls. [Wikipedia]
The ancient Macedonian athletes who participated in pan-Hellenic games were:
- Alexander I of Macedon 504 or 500 BC Stadion 2nd Olympics 
- c. 430–420 BC Argive Heraean games
- Archelaos Perdikas 408 BC Tethrippon in Olympic and Pythian Games
- Philip II of Macedon (Thrice Olympic Winner), 356 BC Horse Race, 352 BC Tethrippon, 348 BC two-colt chariot, Synoris
- 344 BC Tethrippon Panathenaics
- Archon of Pella 334-332 BC Horse race Isthmian and Pythian Games
- Antigonus (son of Callas) 332-331 BC Hoplitodromos Heraclean games in Tyrus, after the Conquest of the city
- Malacus Μάλακος 329/328 BC Dolichos Amphiarian games
- Criton or Cliton 328 BC Stadion Olympics
- Damasias of Amphipolis 320 BC Stadion Olympics
- Lagus (son of Ptolemeus) Λᾶγος 308 BC Synoris Arcadian Lykaia
- Epaenetus (son of Silanus) Ἐπαίνετος 308 BC Tethrippon Lykaia
- Heraclitus Ἡράκλειτος 304 BC stadion Lykaia
- Bubalus of Cassandreia Βούβαλος 304 BC keles (horse) flat race Lykaia
- Lampos of Philippi 304 BC Tethrippon Olympics
- Antigonus 292 and 288 BC Stadion Olympics
- Seleucus 268 BC Stadion Olympics
- Belistiche 264 BC Tethrippon and Synoris Olympics
- Apollodorus (runner) (1st century BC) Olympics
Horse race Olympic Victors as recorded in recent discovered epigrams of Posidippus of Pella (c. 3rd century BC)
- Ptolemy I Soter
- Ptolemy II Philadelphus
- Arsinoe I
- Arsinoe II
- Berenice Phernophorus
- Berenice II
- Cleopatra II
- Etearchus Ἐτέαρχος
- Molycus Μόλυκος
- Plangon Πλαγγών woman
- Trygaios Τρυγαῖος